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June 12, 2020 In bariatric surgery, Blog By Dr. Vikas Singhal

All About Bariatric Surgery Types, Risk, Cost & Complications

Bariatric Surgery is a surgical procedure that helps losing weight by making changes to your digestive system. Bariatric surgery is an option if you have severe obesity and have not been able to lose weight. Bariatric surgery also prevents from gaining back any weight you lost using other methods such as lifestyle treatment or medications.

Bariatric Surgery can prevent serious health issues, such as type 2 diabetes or sleep apnea or other health problems related to obesity. Bariatric surgery can improve many of the medical conditions linked to obesity.

Basically, weight loss using this surgery can be done by making necessary alterations to the digestive system. Bariatric surgery is performed when diet and exercise are futile or when you have serious health problems because of your weight. A person can opt for bariatric surgery when other methods are weight losses such as exercise are not showing any noticeable effects. Limiting the amount of food you can consume or changing the nutrition absorption ability of your body can lose body weight.

Your healthy habits and living standards will not be affected by bariatric surgery. It only helps patients to consume fewer calories and be more physically active. Opting for a healthier lifestyle and food choices before and after the surgery may help you lose more weight and keep it off long term. Regular physical activity after surgery also helps keep the weight off.

Thus, weight loss by bariatric surgery can be achieved in two ways:

  • Restricting the amount of food that your stomach can hold.
  • Limiting the number of calories and other nutrients that your body can absorb.

Obesity is a serious health issue that involves accumulating an extra amount of fat in your body parts. More than 100 million people in India are suffering from obesity. Obesity leads to high blood pressure, type 2 diabetes, coronary heart disease, stroke, gallbladder disease, osteoarthritis, sleep apnea, and difficulty with physical functioning.

Even a small amount of weight loss can control several diseases that are the result of obesity. The dietary changes, physical activity, and lifestyle changes can help you lose weight. But in the case of morbid obesity, surgery is the only viable option.

Studies have shown that many people who have bariatric surgery lose about 15 to 30 percent of their starting weight on average, depending on the type of surgery they have. Changes in your diet followed by some regular exercise can ensure long-lasting effects of bariatric surgery.

In case your BMI is greater than 40, then bariatric surgery is one of the best options for you.  Even if your BMI is above 30, then the surgery will help you to get rid of the health problems that are rising from obesity.

However, this surgery is not for anyone who is suffering from obesity. There are certain sets of guidelines that a person must qualify before the surgery. After surgery long term follows up a plan to monitor your diet and exercise routine.

Bariatric Surgery cost is high but it can save lives. Bariatric surgery costs can be covered with a health insurance plan. Bariatric surgery cost in India is also covered by many health insurers.

Types of Bariatric Surgery

 laparoscopic bariatric surgery

 

  • Laparoscopic adjustable gastric band
  • Gastric sleeve surgery
  • Gastric bypass
  • Duodenal Switch

Laparoscopic Adjustable Gastric Band:

The surgeon places a ring with an inner inflatable band around the top of your stomach to create a small pouch. It makes you satisfied and complete even after you eat a small amount of food. The surgeon can modify the size of the opening from the pouch to the rest of your stomach by injecting or removing the solution via a small device called a port placed under your skin. If the band causes problems or is not helping in losing enough weight, the pouch can be removed.

Gastric Sleeve:

Gastric sleeve surgery is also referred to as vertical sleeve gastrectomy. Most of your stomach is removed during the surgery. Only a banana-shaped section closed with the staples is left. Since the amount of food that can enter your stomach is limited, you will feel full sooner. This procedure affects gut hormones or gut bacteria that may affect appetite and metabolism.

This type of surgery cannot be reversed because some of the stomachs are permanently removed. Moreover, this is also responsible for the production of the hormone that is responsible for decreasing your desire to eat. It does not make any changes in nutrition absorption in your intestines.

Gastric Bypass:

Gastric bypass surgery, also called Roux-en-Y gastric bypass and laparoscopic bariatric surgery has two parts. First, the surgeon staples your stomach, creating a small pouch in the upper section. Secondly, your small intestine is attached to the stomach pouch directly by making a cut. Thus, fewer calories are absorbed by your intestine. The amount of food and drinks that you can consume at a time is affected and limited by the same.

In order to insert a variety of surgical tools, some incisions are made in your abdomen. Then a stomach pouch is created by separating the top portion from the bottom one of your stomach. Thus, the small pouch will not be able to hold much food inside it. A part of your small intestine known as the jejunum is then attached to the stomach pouch allowing food to bypass the lower stomach, the duodenum.

This bypassed section is still attached to the main part of your stomach, so digestive juices can move from your stomach and the first part of your small intestine into the lower part of your small intestine. The bypass also changes gut hormones, gut bacteria, and affect appetite and metabolism. Since gastric bypass is difficult to reverse, thus it is done only if it is medically necessary.

Duodenal Switch:

This surgery is also known as biliopancreatic diversion with a duodenal switch. This can be further categorized into two different surgeries. The first one is quite similar to gastric sleeve surgery. In the second surgery, the food is allowed to pass through the majority of your small intestine. The attachments of your bypass sections are also done such that the digestive juices are allowed to mix with food. This surgery is also the most likely to cause surgery-related problems and a shortage of vitamins, minerals, and protein in your body. After going through this surgery, you may lack several essential vitamins and minerals in your body. This is the reason why it is avoided by the surgeons.

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